Home > Personal Finance > The Widow or Widower’s Guide to Social Security Benefits

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The loss of a spouse is devastating, and in that situation, the last thing you want to worry about is money. Unfortunately, as a widow or widower, money is often one of the most important things to think about. And Social Security benefits are usually one of the first—and trickiest—financial resources to navigate. To help you wade through these waters, we’ve put together a comprehensive guide to Social Security survivors benefits.

The Breakdown of Social Security Benefits

If you’re an eligible age and meet other qualifications, Social Security benefits are available to you after your spouse passes away. But it can be tough figuring out if you can receive these benefits and when you should start. Here are some of the main factors that impact how much survivors benefits you’re entitled to:

  • The length of the marriage
  • Your age and your spouse’s age
  • When you want to start receiving benefits

Understanding these factors and the rules to which they apply can help you make informed decisions and maximize your benefits payments.

The Length of the Marriage Matters

In nearly every case, you need to have been married for at least nine months to claim Social Security survivors benefits. However, there are a few exceptions:

  • You share a child. If you were married fewer than nine months but your spouse was the parent of your child, you can claim survivors benefits.
  • It was an accident. Accidental death can waive the nine-month requirement for Social Security benefits.
  • Military service. If your spouse dies in the line of active duty for the military, you are entitled to survivors benefits.

What if you were married more than nine months and later divorced? Surprisingly, you can receive survivors benefits from an ex-spouse if you were married for at least 10 years. In fact, if you were married for at least 10 years to more than one ex-spouse who is now deceased, you can choose the biggest benefit. But if you remarried before the age of 60 and are still married, you cannot receive these benefits.

Also, any amount you do receive may be shared with other family members who are also entitled to survivors benefits.

The Impact of Age

We all know that there are age requirements for collecting Social Security benefits, and those rules remain intact for survivors benefits. Survivors benefits are first available when you turn 60, but you stand to collect more benefits if you wait until full retirement age at 66 (if you were born before 1957) or 67 (if you were born in 1957 or later). Here’s a look at how age affects your Social Security survivors benefits:

  • Receiving benefits at age 60. If you start collecting Social Security benefits at age 60, you will receive only 60% of the full benefit.
  • Receiving benefits at full retirement age. If you can afford to wait until you’re 66 or 67, you can collect 100% of the benefits available.
  • Deferring benefits until age 70. After you reach full retirement age, you can elect to defer your benefits until age 70. This lets you accrue delayed retirement credits, which could increase your benefits payments.
  • Receiving benefits with a disability. If you are disabled, you can start collecting benefits at age 50. But the disability must have started before or within seven years of your spouse’s passing.

If you don’t need Social Security benefits right away to stay financially sound during retirement, consider waiting as long as possible for the most benefits.

The Decision of When to Start Collecting Benefits

Because the benefits payment increases with time, it’s smart to look at your budget and determine if you need to start collecting benefits immediately. Another important thing to note is that you can only collect one Social Security benefit—your spouse’s or your own. But you can switch from one to the other.

If you are still working, or plan to work until full retirement age, consider taking your spouse’s survivors benefits when they are available and then switching to your full benefits when you retire. This can get tricky, though, so it’s important to pay attention to a few financial areas:

  • Watch your paycheck. If you have yet to retire and are working and collecting survivors benefits, pay attention to your annual income. If you earn over a certain level, Social Security will withhold part of your benefits.
  • Keep taxes in mind. You may end up paying taxes on a much larger portion of your benefits if you work while collecting Social Security benefits.
  • Note who was the higher earner. Because the higher earner will have the larger Social Security benefit payout, determine which benefits will ultimately pay you more over the remainder of your life. If you are the higher earner, it’s smart to tap into survivors benefits as soon as possible and make the switch when you’re eligible for your own benefits at full retirement age. If your spouse earned more, think about collecting your benefits (even at a reduced rate), and then switching to survivors benefits when you reach full retirement age.

Sorting through the ins and outs of Social Security survivors benefits isn’t easy, especially after suffering the loss of your spouse. But a solid understanding of what you can receive and how to maximize those benefits can make your transition to single living somewhat easier. Before making any decisions, you should consult an expert—either a Social Security representative or a financial planner you trust. They can guide you through all the regulations and paperwork to make sure you’re taken care of.

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  • http://www.credit.com/ Credit.com Credit Experts

    A widow eligible for benefits can start receiving them as early as age 60, with benefits reduced slightly for every month under age 70. You can find more here:
    http://www.ssa.gov/survivorplan/survivorchartred.htm

  • http://www.Credit.com/ Gerri Detweiler

    Linda – Collecting social security benefits is a huge decision and many people make costly mistakes. I urge you to check out this site for helpful information: https://www.maximizemysocialsecurity.com/press-articles Don’t rely solely oh the Social Security website or you may end up getting less than you could if you maximize your benefits.

    • veronicas

      Warning above website is soley her advertising a company

      • http://www.Credit.com/ Gerri Detweiler

        Linda – He does sell software to help consumers maximize Social Security benefits but he also has a good book you should be able to get for free at your local library.

  • http://www.Credit.com/ Gerri Detweiler

    Have you seen this calculator? It may be very helpful to your mother. This is a vary important decision and it is important she gets it right: Maximizemysocialsecurity.com/

  • http://www.credit.com/ Credit.com Credit Experts

    Your mother doesn’t have to reach full retirement age to collect benefits, though they are reduced slightly for each month younger than 66. The SSA explains it here: http://www.ssa.gov/retirement/1943.html

  • kim

    I am 47 and didn’t work. My husband was 52 when he passed. We have no kids. He was my sole support. I’m not disabled and he had no kids. Am I able to get anything?

    • http://www.credit.com/ Credit.com Credit Experts

      Kim —
      Our condolences on the loss of your husband.

      The Social Security Administration has an information page here: http://www.ssa.gov/sf/FactSheets/WomenandSSrev1.pdf
      It says “Widows are due between 71 percent (at age 60) and 100 percent (at full retirement age) of what the husband was getting before he died.” You may also be eligible for a one-time death benefit of $255. Hopefully, your husband carried life insurance, which should also help.

  • http://www.Credit.com/ Gerri Detweiler

    Gail,

    The Social Security Administration website guide to survivor’s benefits should provide you with more details as you navigate this process. Our condolences for your loss.

  • lora

    I took out a student loan, will the goverment take out my student loan payments out of my died husband social security check that I will be receving

    • http://www.credit.com/ Credit.com Credit Experts

      Lora —
      Our condolence on the death of your husband. In answer to your question, SSI (Supplemental Security Income, a program designed to help low-income people) is completely protected, but survivor benefits may not be if these were federal student loans. You can read more here: My Social Security Income Is Being Zapped for Student Loans!.

  • Felicia Hackney

    My grandmother is terrified to keep very much of her widows pention in her bank out of fear of it being taken from her for having to much can anyone help me find out if her fears are realistic

    • http://www.Credit.com/ Gerri Detweiler

      Does she have a judgment against her? I am not sure what you mean by her fear of having too much…

  • Margaret Tomlin

    My husband took social security at 62 and was getting over $2,000 and I was getting around $900. He died at 77 and I was 74 and as a widow I am now getting $1287.00. In the paper about social security the lady said she was 75 and husband 82 getting $2,100 and she $950 and they said when he died she would start getting $2,100 in widow’s benefits. I am now 87 and was wondering why I did not get my husband’s full benefit. Margaret Tomlin

    • http://www.Credit.com/ Gerri Detweiler

      Ms. .Tomlin – There are so many factors that go into Social Security calculations that it’s hard to say why the example you saw in the newspaper did not apply to you. However, if you are not sure you are maximizing your benefits, you may want to look into the Maximize My Social Security tool. (There is a fee for it: https://maximizemysocialsecurity.com/)

    • Lorilu

      Contact Your Social security office and request a meeting to discuss your situation immediately. Widows are usually entitled to receive their deceased husband’s benefit. It does not seem that you are receiving his benefit. Ask to speak to a supervisor if you need further information. If you are entitled to a higher benefit, you may also be entitled to some retroactive benefits, so do not delay.

  • Eileen

    If I become a widow ,and I’m receiving Social Security retirement. My husband is also receiving Social Security retirement. Would I receive his whole income since his is greater than mine?

    • http://www.credit.com/ Credit.com Credit Experts

      Our understanding is you would receive his whole Social Security retirement income, rather than yours. If he has other income, you would not necessarily receive that.

  • Lorilu

    Widows can claim a benefit beginning at age 60.

  • cheryl hingle

    Hello..My husband passed away Sunday, Oct. 18,2015. I went to the SS Office..They told me I was not eligible for ANYTHING because I work..He was on disability…I am 56 yrs. old, disabled & work…How could I NOT qualify for anything?

    • http://www.credit.com/ Credit.com Credit Experts

      Here’s what the Social Security website says: If you are the widow or widower of a person who worked long enough under Social Security, you can . . . receive full benefits at full retirement age for survivors or reduced benefits as early as age 60.

  • Melissa

    My adult son is 23 and disabled. Would he be entitled to survivors benefits if myself or my ex husband pass away?

    • http://www.credit.com/ Credit.com Credit Experts

      According to the Social Security website: “Your children can get benefits at any age if they were
      disabled before age 22 and remain disabled.”

      It would be smart to talk with an estate planning lawyer about this.

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