Individual Retirement Accounts, or IRAs, are wonderful retirement accumulation vehicles. Contributions are generally tax-deductible (with limitations), and the assets in the accounts grow without the burden of taxation until withdrawn. Distributions are generally taxed the same as earned income. Roth IRAs are similar to Traditional IRAs in that the account also grows free of income taxation. However, contributions are not tax-deductible and qualified distributions are generally income-tax free. For the purpose of this discussion, I will primarily focus on lifetime traditional IRA distributions.
1. There Is a 10% Penalty Tax
Since Congress designed IRAs for retirement needs, and not for pre-retirement vacations or mid-life crisis Porsches, there is a 10% penalty tax imposed on the taxable portion of withdrawals taken prior to age 59½ (with a few limited exceptions). While the pre-59½ rule limits early distributions, there is also a rule that forces distributions to be taken later in life. This rule prevents the accountholder from overusing the tax deferral provided by the plan. Generally, April 1st of the year after the accountholder turns age 70½ is the Required Beginning Date (RBD) for withdrawals. This is when the first Required Minimum Distribution (RMD) from the plan is due. An individual reaches age 70½ six months following their 70th birthday. If you turn age 70 between January 1 and June 30, you will turn 70½ during that calendar year. If your birthday is between July 1 and December 31, you will turn 70½ in the following calendar year.
2. The RMD Must Be Taken Annually
The RMD must be taken annually by December 31 each year thereafter using the year-end value of the IRA of the previous year. It is important to note that the first RMD can be taken in the actual year that the participant turns 70½. The following year’s April 1st deadline is actually sort of a first-year grace period. If the first RMD is delayed until April 1st (as opposed to taken by December 31 of the 70½ year), another RMD is due by December 31 of that same year. So it may actually make sense to take the first RMD by December 31 of the year in which the participant actually turns 70½ instead of waiting to avoid two withdrawals in the same calendar year and possibly increase taxation by potentially pushing the participant into a higher tax bracket.
3. There Is a 50% Penalty If the Accountholder Doesn’t Take the RMD
If the accountholder does not take the required minimum amount, a 50% penalty is imposed on the portion of the required amount that was not taken. That is not a typographical error. The penalty is really 50%. This penalty is in addition to the normal income tax payable on the distribution. The purpose of this Required Minimum Distribution, at least theoretically, is to liquidate the entire balance of the retirement account by the end of the participant’s lifetime. In order to do this, the IRS has developed three Life Expectancy Tables (see below). Table I applies to RMDs after the death of the participant, while Tables II and III applies to required distributions during the participant’s lifetime.
4. There’s a Specific Way to Determine the Lifetime RMD
The lifetime RMD is determined by dividing the account balance as of December 31 of the previous year by the factor on Table III of the IRS Publication 590 Life Expectancy Tables, corresponding to the age of the account owner. If, however, the sole beneficiary of the account for the entire year is a spouse who is more than 10 years younger than the participant, Table II must be used. For subsequent years, the new attained age for that year is used to determine a new RMD divisor in the same Table that was used in the first year. In other words, increase the age by one year and look up the corresponding new life expectancy factor each year.
5. Lifetime RMDs Do Not Apply to Roth IRAs
It is important to note that the lifetime RMDs generally apply to Traditional, SEP, and SIMPLE IRAs, but do not apply Roth IRAs. (The RMD rules vary somewhat for employer-sponsored retirement plans like 401Ks, 403Bs, pension plans, and government plans, which are not covered in this discussion.) If the participant owns multiple IRAs, the values must be combined to determine the correct RMD, but withdrawals can come from any or all of the accounts.
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